Today's case brief is of Allen v. Long, Mfg. NC, Inc., 332 S.C. 422, 505 S.E.2d 354 (Ct. App. 1998). This is a warnings case, and it is significant because it discusses the adequacy of warnings, rejects that compliance with industry standards is conclusive evidence of adequacy, and establishes the heeding presumption in South Carolina.
FACTUAL BACKGROUND: Otis Allen, Sr. ("Allen") was using a portable grain auger to load grain onto a grain drill. 332 S.C. at 424, 505 S.E.2d at 355. The auger's center of gravity could change when grain was conveyed to the top of the auger without replacing the material at the bottom (which kept it stable and prevented it from becoming top heavy). Id. Allen was standing beneath the auger's discharge end when it became unstable and struck him in the head, killing him. Id. He had not anchored the lower end or supported the discharge end. Id. The auger contained a warning label with the word "CAUTION" preceding eleven different instructions. 332 S.C. at 425, 505 S.E.2d at 356.
PROCEDURE: Allen's estate ("Plaintiff") brought a wrongful death and pain and suffering action against Defendant Long Mfg. NC, Inc. ("Long", the manufacturer of the auger) and Glen Kinard, the auger's owner. 332 S.C. at 424-25, 505 S.E.2d at 355. The theories of recovery were strict liability and negligence. Id. at 424, 505 S.E.2d at 355. The trial court granted Long's motion for summary judgment. Id. Plaintiff appealed to the South Carolina Court of Appeals.
ISSUES: The questions on appeal were whether genuine issues of material fact existed regarding (1) whether the auger was in a "defective condition unreasonably dangerous" to Allen, (2) whether Long breached its duty of care by failing to provide an adequate warning, and (3) whether Allen's failure to follow the warning was the proximate cause of his injuries. 332 S.C. at 425-26, 505 S.E.2d at 356.
DISPOSITION: The Court of Appeals reversed the trial court's grant of summary judgment. 332 S.C. at 426, 505 S.E.2d at 356. It found that the sufficiency of the auger's warnings was a question of fact for the jury. Id.
RULES AND OPINION: With regard to whether the auger was in a defective condition, unreasonably dangerous to the user, the court pointed out that "[i]f a warning is given which, if followed, makes the product safe for use, the product cannot be deemed defective or unreasonably dangerous." 332 S.C. at 427, 505 S.E.2d at 357 (citing Restatement (Second) of Torts section 402A cmt. j (1965)). Whether a warning is adequate is a question of fact for the jury as long as evidence has been presented that the warning was not adequate. Id. at 428, 505 S.E.2d at 357. Plaintiff's expert provided testimony regarding the auger's warning that created a genuine issue of material fact. 332 S.C. at 429, 505 S.E.2d at 358. There was nothing in the auger's warnings to explain that the machine's center of gravity could change as it emptied. Id. Furthermore, the court disagreed with the trial court's interpretation of Bragg v. Hi-Ranger, Inc., 319 S.C. 531, 462 S.E.2d 321 (Ct. App. 1996) as establishing that a warning is adequate as a matter of law if it complies with industry standards. 332 S.C. at 430-31, 505 S.E.2d at 358-59 ("We reject this principle as unsound since it would allow the industry to set its own standard of safety, a proposition which finds no support from other jurisdictions, and which is antithetical to the underlying premise of strict liability."). Finally, the court stated that it need not address whether a feasible design alternative must be presented to survive summary judgment. Id. at 431, 505 S.E.2d at 359. The court agreed that Plaintiff failed to present a factual issue on this point, but it concluded that the court erred in ruling upon it because Long conceded that the auger required a warning to be made safe. Id. This concession foreclosed Plaintiff's argument that the auger could have been redesigned to be made safer and rendered the trial court's holding moot. Id. at 431-32, 505 S.E.2d at 359.
With regard to Long's duty of care, the court reversed the trial court's determination that Long satisfied its duty of care because its determination was premised on the legal adequacy of the auger's warning, which the Court of Appeals (supra) held was an issue of fact for the jury. Id. at 432, 505 S.E.2d at 359.
Finally, the court reversed the trial court's finding that the Plaintiff failed to introduce evidence of causation. 332 S.C. at 432-33, 505 S.E.2d at 359-60. At trial, Long successfully argued that Allen's failure to heed the auger's warning was the proximate cause of his injuries because Plaintiff's expert stated that if Allen had followed the warnings, the accident would not have occurred. Id. at 432, 505 S.E.2d at 359-60. The court stated that when an adequate warning is given, the manufacturer may assume that it will be heeded by the product user. Id. at 432-33, 505 S.E.2d at 360. However, the testimony by Plaintiff's expert created a factual issue as to whether a different, adequate warning could have changed Allen's conduct. Id. at 433, 505 S.E.2d at 360.